AC Electricity : RMS Quantities
First Part of AC Electricity for Industrial Instrumentation Series
It is often useful to be able to express the amplitude of an AC quantity such as voltage or current in terms that are equivalent to direct current (DC). Doing so provides an “apples-to-apples” comparison between AC and DC quantities that makes comparative circuit analysis much easier.
The most popular standard of equivalence is based on work and power, and we call this the root-mean-square value of an AC waveform, or RMS for short. For example, an AC voltage of 120 volts “RMS” means that this AC voltage is capable of producing the exact same amount of power (in Watts) at an electrical load as a 120 volt DC source powering the exact same load.
The problem is exactly how to calculate this “RMS” value if all we know about the AC waveform is its peak value. If we compare a sine wave and a DC “wave” side by side, it is clear that the sine wave must peak at a greater value than the constant DC level in order to be equivalent in terms of doing the same work in the same amount of time:
At first, it might seem like the correct approach would be to use calculus to integrate the sine wave over one-half of a cycle (from 0 to π radians) and figure out how much area is under the curve. This is close, but not fully correct. You see, the ability of an electrical voltage to produce a power dissipation at a resistor is not directly proportional to the magnitude of that voltage, but rather proportional to the square of the magnitude of that voltage! In mathematical terms, power is predicted by the following equation:
If we double the amount of voltage applied to a resistor, the power increases four-fold. If we triple the voltage, the power goes up by a factor of nine! If we are to figure out the “RMS” equivalent value of a sine wave, we must take this nonlinearity into consideration.
First let us begin with a mathematical equivalence between the DC and AC cases. On one hand, the amount of work done by the DC voltage source will be equal to the power of that circuit multiplied by time. The unit of measurement for power is the Watt, which is defined as 1 Joule of work per second. So, multiplying the steady power rate in a DC circuit by the time we keep it powered will result in an answer of joules (total energy dissipated by the resistor):
On the other hand, the amount of work done by a sine-wave-shaped AC voltage is equal to the square of the sine function divided by resistance, integrated over a specified time period. In other words, we will use the calculus process of integration to calculate the area underneath the function sin2 t rather than under the function sin t. Since the interval from 0 to π will encompass the essence of the sine wave’s shape, this will be our integration interval:
Setting these two equations equal to each other (since we want the amount of work in each case to be equal), and making sure the DC side of the equation has π for the amount of time (being the same interval as the AC side), we get this:
First, we know that R is a constant value, and so we may move it out of the integrand:
Multiplying both sides of the equation by R eliminates it completely. This should make intuitive sense, as our RMS equivalent value for a voltage is defined strictly by the ability to produce the same amount of power as the same value of DC voltage for any resistance value. Therefore the actual value of resistance (R) should not matter, and it should come as no surprise that it falls out:
Now, we may simplify the integrand by substituting the half-angle equivalence for the sin2 t function
Factoring one-half out of the integrand and moving it outside (because it’s a constant):
We may write this as the difference between two integrals, treating each term in the integrand as its own integration problem:
The second integral may be solved simply by using substitution, with u = 2t, du = 2 dt, and dt = du/2
Moving the one-half outside the second integrand:
Finally, now we can integrate the silly thing:
We can see that π cancels out of both sides:
Taking the square root of both sides, we arrive at our final answer:
So, for a sinusoidal voltage with a peak value of 1 volt, the DC equivalent or “RMS” voltage value would be 1 / √2 volts, or approximately 0.707 volts. In other words, a sinusoidal voltage of 1 volt peak will produce just as much power dissipation at a resistor as a steady DC battery voltage of 0.7071 volts applied to that same resistor. Therefore, this 1 volt peak sine wave may be properly called a 0.7071 volt RMS sine wave, or a 0.7071 volt “DC equivalent” sine wave. This factor for sinusoidal voltages is quite useful in electrical power system calculations, where the wave-shape of the voltage is nearly always sinusoidal (or very close). In your home, for example, the voltage available at any wall receptacle is 120 volts RMS, which translates to 169.7 volts peak.
Electricians and electronics technicians often memorize the 1 / √2 conversion factor without realizing it only applies to sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms. If we are dealing with a non-sinusoidal wave-shape, the conversion factor between peak and RMS will be different! The mathematical procedure for obtaining the conversion factor will be identical, though: integrate the wave-shape’s function (squared) over an interval sufficiently long to capture the essence of the shape, and set that equal to V 2 times that same interval span.